Tuesday, 22 August 2017

Stockings in the Seventeenth Century


Gustavus Adolphus boothose in the Livrustkammaren 
We speak of stockings and that term was certainly used in the seventeenth century, but other terms were also being used, and as the meaning of words changed it is sometimes difficult to understand precisely what is being talked about. Hose, from which we get the term hosiery, originally referred to something that covered the entire leg. Once breeches appear the term hose can be used to indicate either the stockings or the breeches, so as late at 1647 there are references to pockets in hose. (OED, 2017) There are also references to upper stocks, meaning the breeches, and nether stocks, meaning the stockings. Knit is another complicated word, which can mean simply tied or knotted, rather than knitted; so each reference has to be looked at in context.

Origins of knitting

The history of knitting is a complex and difficult one to disentangle, not least because earlier techniques like nalebinding, a form of sewn looped textile, can be confused with knitting, but it is generally assumed it started in the middle east around 1000AD (Rutt, 1987). By the mid sixteenth century knitted hose is mentioned often and examples are found in graves all over Europe, and not just those of the upper classes, though they tend to predominate. The best known are probably the scarlet silk knitted stockings of Elenora de Toledo who died in 1562. 

The sixteenth century

In sixteenth century England stockings were already being made of worsted thread as well as silk, and even Queen Elizabeth wore them, being first supplied with Norwich worsted yarn hose in 1576. When she visited Norwich in 1578 there was a pageant, and on the stage were “small women children” spinning worsted at one end of the stage with more knitting the hose at the other end. (Arnold, 1988). By 1583 when Philip Stubbs published his Anatomy of Abuses, he was complaining that, “every one almost, though otherwise very poor, having scarce forty shillings of wages by the year will not stick to have two or three pair of these silk nether stocks, or else of the finest Yarn”. This is obviously an exaggeration, but it points to how common knitted stockings were becoming.


The price of stockings varied considerably depending on the quality of the yarn, and also on the complexity of the pattern and decoration. Thirsk (1973) states a Kirby Lonsdale stocking dealer in 1578 had stockings valued between 7d and 22d a pair, while over a hundred year later in 1692 chapman Ann Clarke had stockings between 6d and 26d a pair (Spufford, 1984). These are, for want of a better term, working class stockings. Silk stockings were considerably more expensive; in 1647 James Master paid 19 shillings for green silk stockings  (Dalison, 1883 ). Interestingly it is not always the cheapest stockings that are given to the poor. In 1649-50 clothing given to the poor of St Giles, Cripplegate, London included a total of 60 pairs of stockings at 22d the pair (Saunders, 2006). The stockings for the New Model Army varied in price from 12d to 22d a pair depending on the contract. (Mungeam, 1969)


People might own both knit and cloth hose, for example the list of clothing given to a servant between 1580 and 1610 includes both “for knitting a pair of woollen hose for her 4d” and “for two pair of hose for her of the defendant’s own cloth.” (Anthony, 1980) Stubbs lists knitted stockings as being of “jarnsey (jersey), worsted, crewel, silk, thread and such like.” (Stubbes, 1583) Cloth hose could involve a wider variety of fabric; linen, worsted, fustian, kersey, silk and satin are all mentioned at various times. The Victoria and Albert Museum has a pair seventeenth century linen cloth hose with a simple embroidery around the triangular gusset at the ankle (this area is known as the clock), and up the rear seam. Because linen has less give than other fabrics, they are tightened at the ankle by lacing through fourteen pairs of eyelet holes. (Rothstein, 1984) In one six month period in 1635 King Charles received 24 pairs of fine linen boothose with welted tops, and 40 pairs of grey boothose, with no fabric specified. (Strong, 1980) Irish cloth stockings were particularly prized for their hardwearing qualities, and were recommended for those emigrating to the New World. William Wood in 1639 advised intending settlers that they were, “much more serviceable than knit ones”. (Poppy, 2003)


Subbs says that knit stockings where, “green, red, white, tawny and else what.” (Stubbes, 1583) In an inventory of 1619 the Earl of Dorset has stockings in black, white, green, purple, tawny, yellow, murrey, grass green, crimson, pearl and watchet (a greeny-blue), often the colour matched that of his suit. (MacTaggart, 1980) On the other hand poor children at Beecles in the 1630s were being issued with grey knitted hose. (Spufford, 1984)The fragments of whalers stockings found in graves dating from c.1614 to c.1660 at Smeerenburg contain blue, red, green and black. (Vons-Comis, 1987)


From quite early on the patterns of knitted stockings could be quite complex. The 1562 Eleonora de Toledo stockings have a complex  pattern consisting of panels of double moss stitch and double garter stitch separated by narrow stripes of reversed stocking stitch and a central wale, the tops have a lozenge pattern, each diamond containing four eyelets, with a zigzag of purl to their top and bottom. (Orsi Landini, 1993). As well as decoration in the knitting itself the stockings could also be embroidered. The stockings in the grave of a daughter of Christian IV of Denmark, who died in 1628, were embroidered with metal threads on the outside of the stocking. The pattern over the cloaks shows a peacock with an outspread tail above a five petalled flower, the stalk of which continues down the foot with leaves and flower buds. (Ostergard, 1988)
Many knitted stockings, plain and patterned, had a false seam at the back, this could be made simply by knitting a purl stitch at the end of every round, though this is not always the case. The false seam could sometimes be quite complex in design. A seaman from the Spitsbergen burials wears two stockings which do not form a pair, one has a false seam, the other does not. (Vons-Comis, 1988)
Cloth hose could also be heavily embroidered. The embroidery was either around the clocks for stockings to be worn with shoes, or at the top for boothose. An example is the surviving linen boothose supposedly worn by Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden at the Battle of Lutzen in 1632, the tops have an elaborate pattern of cornucopia, flowers and birds done in black silk and gold thread. (Rangstrom, 2002)

Make do and Mend

At all levels of society and for all types of stockings, darns, patches and repairs were made. By 1599 an English to Spanish language book has the phrase “Looke well to see if the stockings have any stitches broken in them.” (Minsheu, 1599) Queen Elizabeth’s accounts have references to “lengthening of a payer of white silk hose at the tooes with silke” and for “lengthenynge of a payer of silke knit hose in the feet and toppes.” (Arnold, 1988) The stockings of the Spitsbergen whaler were both darned especially at the knees, and both stockings are so patched under the foot it is impossible to see the original construction. (Vons-Comis, 1988) With the Gunnister stockings from a burial in Shetland at the end of the seventeenth century, both feet have been replaced, one with part of the leg of another stocking and the other with coarsely woven cloth. (Henshall, 1951-2)


The earliest pattern for knitting stockings was published in Natura Exenterata in 1655, as Rutt (1987) says it is imcomplete and hard to follow, being three pages long written in a single sentence. Rutt has modernised the spelling and punctuated it, however it is still imcomplete as it stops just before the toe. Several costume historians and re-enactors have tried to create useable variations of this pattern and others, you can find these patterns online. Paterns for cloth hose change little, so they can be adapted from the patterns that appear in Thursfield (2001) and Mikhaila. (2006)


Anthony, I. 1980. Clothing given to a servant of the late sixteenth century in Wales. Costume. 1980, Vol. 14.
Arnold, J. ed. 1988. Queen Elizabeth's wardrobe unlock'd. Leeds : Maney, 1988.
Dalison, Mrs, transcriber. 1883 . The expense book of James Master, Esq., of Yotes Court, Mereworth, 1646-55. Archaeologia Cantiana. 1883 , Vol. 15.
Henshall, A and Maxwell, S. 1951-2. Clothing and other articles from a late 17th century grave at Gunnister, Shetland. Proceedings of the Society of Anitquaries of Scotland. 1951-2, Vol. 86.
MacTaggart, P and A. 1980. The rich wearing apparel of Richard, 3rd Earl of Dorset. Costume. 1980, Vol. 14.
Mikhaila, N. and Malcolm-Davies, Jane. 2006. The Tudor tailor. London : Batsford, 2006.
Minsheu, John. 1599. Pleasant dialogues in Spanish and English. 1599.
Mungeam, G. 1969. Contracts for the supply of equipment to the New Model Army in 1645. Journal of Arms and Armour Society. 1969, Vol. 6.
OED. 2017. Oxford English Dictionary Online. 2017.
Orsi Landini, R., Ricci, S and Westerman Bulgarella, M. eds. 1993. Moda alla corte dei Medici: Gli abiti restaurati di Cosimo, Eleonora e don Garzia. Firenze : Centro Di Cat, 1993.
Ostergard, E. 1988. The coffins of two royal children in Roskilde cathedral. [book auth.] P. and Wild J. eds. Walton. Textiles in northern archaeology. London : Archtype, 1988.
Poppy, P. 2003. Mary Ring: the clothing of an early American settler. Costume. 2003, Vol. 37.
Rangstrom, L. 2002. Modelejon manligt mode 1500 tal, 1600 tal, 1700 tal. Stockholm : Livrustkammaren, 2002.
Rothstein, R. ed. 1984. Four hundred years of fashion. London : Victoria and Albert Museum, 1984.
Rutt, R. 1987. A history of handknitting. London : Batsford, 1987.
Saunders, A. S. 2006. Provision of apparel for the poor in London, 1630-1680. Costume. 2006, Vol. 40.
Spufford, M. 1984. The great reclothing of rural England: petty chapmen and their wares in the seventeenth century. London : Hambledon Press, 1984.
Strong, R. 1980. Charles I's clothes for the years 1633 to 1635. Costume. 1980, Vol. 14.
Stubbes, P. 1583. The anatomie of abuses. 1583.
Thirsk, J. 1973. The fantasical folly of fashion: the English stocking knitting industry 1500-1700. Textile History and Economic History: essays in honour of Julia de Lacey Mann,. Manchester : Manchester University Press, , 1973.
Thursfield, S. 2001. The medieval tailor's assistant. Carlton : Bean, 2001.
Vons-Comis, S. 1988. Seventeenth century garments from grave 579, Zeeuwse Uitkijk, Spitsbergen. [book auth.] P Walton and J Wild. Textiles in northern archaeology. London : Archetype, 1988.
Vons-Comis, S.Y. 1987. Workman's clothing or burial garments?: seventeenth and eighteenth century clothing remains from Spitsbergen. Smeerenburg seminar: Report from a symposium presenting results from research into seventeenth century whaling in Spitsbergen. Oslo : Norsk Polarinstitutt, 1987.

Wednesday, 2 August 2017

Honderden...van hand tot hand - Book review

Honderden...van hand tot hand: handschoen en wanten in de Nederlanden voor 1700 by Annemarieke Willemsen. Stichting Rijksmuseum van Ouheden, 2015. 978 90 8932 127 5 €19.50

Hundreds  ... hand to hand: gloves and mittens in the Netherlands before 1700

The first thing to say about this excellent book is that the text is entirely in Dutch, the second is that it is extremely well illustrated. The author, Annemarieke Willemsen, has brought together both information on gloves that have been found in an archaeological context in the Netherlands, and gloves that have survived, with illustrations of gloves in paintings, drawings, manuscripts etc.

The chapters are themed mainly by glove usage, so you have chapters on warm woollen mittens, leather work gloves, luxury leather gloves, military gloves and gloves for sports and games. There is also discussion of gloves as a symbol of dignity by clerics and royalty, and the giving of gloves as gifts. 

Well worth the money – even if you don’t speak Dutch

Monday, 5 June 2017

MEDATS 2017 - report on Jenny Tiramani's paper

I attended an excellent one day conference by MEDATS on Saturday 3rd June. If you are interested in early modern don’t let the name MEDATS, Medieval Dress and Textile Society, put you off, they go through to the end of the sixteenth century. I intend to blog about a couple of the papers, though they were all of interest, even the ones that went back to St Cuthbert (not my period).
Art Institute Chicago - figures dressed for foot combat c1575-80

Jenny Tiramani’s paper was called “The cut and construction of 16th century tournament and procession clothing for horse and rider”. Please note that these comments are from my notes and may not accurately reflect what Jenny said. I do hope she has it published as it was fascinating.

The School of Historical Dress was asked by the Arts Institute Chicago to recreate some textiles for their new Deering Family Galleries of Medieval and Renaissance Art, Arms, and Armor; a good article on the new galleries is in the magazine Apollo. Jenny and her group did a lot of the research in the collection at Schloss Ambras, Innsbruck and in the Vienna Kunst Historisch Museum, Hofjagd- und Rüstkammer. She split her talk into three sections, covering 1) Feather panaches 2) Bases and 3) Horse caparison

1) Feather panaches
Feather panaches are the huge mounds of plumes that appear on the top of helmets. The recreations can be seen above right in an image from the Art Institute, which was also used as the cover for the last issue of the MEDATS newsletter. Since listening to Jenny’s talk I have discovered a blog post on the AIC page on how they were made. Jenny said that these constructions contained not only feathers, but also spangles. They could also be worn by horses, as can be seen in the equestrian portrait of Francois I by Clouet (below left).
Francois I by Francois Clouet

2) Bases
Cloth bases were the skirts worn over armour. I think Jenny said there was a cutwork caparison of c.1550 with a matching rider’s coat with hanging sleeves at Vienna, sorry I could not write fast enough for details and Jenny had lots of fascinating close up photographs. This type of skirt can again be seen in the Clouet portrait to the left. 

3) Horse caparison
The School looked closely at an armoured caparison of c.1555-60 in Vienna and one in Schloss Ambras, Innsbruck. The Innsbruck caparison had small metal rods, rather than metal plates, and this was the style of construction they copied. They whipped the rods onto backing wool with double linen thread, then had velvet on the top. I think there was more to it than that, anyway, the velvet and wool were cut away the produce the cutwork design for the caparison.

Monday, 24 April 2017

Colours of elite clothing in the first half of the seventeenth century

Modern watered silk ribbons


My first posting on the colours of clothing in the first half of the seventeenth century related to the 90% of the population below the nobility and gentry. This looks at the colours of the top 10% to see if there is a difference and, as you can see from the list below, there is a far wider range of names for colours. While there were only 18 named colours for the lower classes, here we have 48 names of colours. These are only colours for main garments: breeches, cloaks, coats, doublets, gowns, kirtles, petticoats and waistcoats.

The sources

Bear in mind that this information is all from written sources. We have not yet looked in detail at portraits and other images. Much of the information here does not come from wills and inventories, but from account books. The account books used range from the gentry through to the King himself.  There are some wills and inventories but, whereas the lower classes listed clothes because they were an important part of their estate, often the richer you get the less clothes are listed, for example in 1648 the will of Baronet Edmund Bacon mentions only, “eleven dozen and six buttons of gold that are sett upon a sute that I weare.” 

For women, most of whom are listed in wills and inventories simply as widow, it is difficult to know their rank, unless you know who their husband was, so we have the “widow of the Auditor General of Ireland” and Elizabeth Wrenn, who is the widow of a knight. 

For men and their wills there is also the problem of how they perceive themselves, and how those who take their inventories perceive them, one man describes himself in his will as a gentleman, the inventory says he is a tanner.  Some will include the fact that they are aldermen of their town to raise their status, so Francis Burrell in 1622 is merchant and alderman. 

This is an ongoing project so the figures and colours will go up as more data is added.

The colours

For the list below I have left out those garments described as wrought, embroidered, figured, or flowered. Among other items, two of the petticoats are flowered and one is figured, a gown and a chamber gown are wrought and a man’s waistcoat is figured, so there are some patterned fabrics. Also you have fabrics with effects, such as watered taffeta (see top right for the effect produced), although a little later the pink stays in the Victoria and Albert Museum are of watered silk.  I have also left out where a fabric is more than one colour, for example “White and red Norwich damask for a petticoat”. (Whittle & Griffiths, 2012)

The top colour is pretty obviously black, which was used for everything. The second colour is white, but 15 of these are men’s waistcoats and three are women’s white flannel under petticoats. The lack of red, compared to the non elite, may be because the list has more men than women; however half of the petticoats are still red, crimson or scarlet. You can group some colours together, red with crimson and scarlet, the browns could include cinnamon, deer, faune and possibly honey. The greys could encompass dove, hair, lead, marble and possibly pearl.

 As some period colour names are not obvious, a description and source has been put next to them. However for many colours we are not sure what the name signified at the time.

aurora  -a yellow with light red tones. (Lowengard, 2006)
beazar  - probably a soft beige (Arnold, 1988)`
carnation – “a kind of colour resembling raw flesh” (Phillips, 1658)
grass green
grey –one suit is described as mist grey (Strong, 1980)
hair - Markham (1631 (1986)) describes dying a bright hair colour using alum, lye and chimney soot. Arnold (1988) considers it was a pale grey or beige
Isabella -  greyish yellow; light buff. Early references just give an Isabella colour, an 1805 quote says, “Isabella yellow, now called cream yellow “, while an 1811 quote has “a yellowish grey, verging on Isabella colour”. (OED, 2017)
minume - dark brownish grey or dun colour (Phillips, 1658) A 1630/1 Norwich Minute Book referring to a local ordinance has “He had forbidden all Dyers in this City to dye any other Tawnyes then Mynnams.” (OED, 2017)
murrey – a deep red purple (OED, 2017), though Hexham has the Dutch equivalent as also meaning “diep kastanie-bruyne” a deep chestnut brown. (Slive, 1961)
parricito  -in margin “a greenish coloured cloth” (Strong, 1980)
pinck cullored - “Pinke, a kind of yellowish-green, a colour used by painters.” (Holme, 1688) It was used to underpaint skin tones.
russet – quotes in the OED include 1562 “the colour Russet, whiche is somewhat lighter then blacke.” In 1573 “If you will mingle a litle portion of white with a good quantitie of redde, you may make thereof a Russet, or a sadde Browne, at your discretion.” Holme (1688) gives “Rosset, a soft and fadeing colour which will not continue long, it is a rich carnation or peach colour”, a definition possibly more of rose than russet.
sad – virtually any dark shade, so elsewhere you have references to sad yellow, sad red, sad green, etc. The garments here are all described simply as sad coloured, doublets, cloaks, etc. without an amending colour. An example James Master 1649 “for making my sad colour cloth sute & cloake with points £3” (Robertson, 1883)
tawny –“Tawney, a compound of red and much yellow” (Holme, 1688)
Turkey – Slive (1961) says that Hexham wisely refused to take a stand on “turkie colour”, and quotes Peacham as saying that Turkey colour is a blue “but others will have it red”
watchet - light greenish blue. There are references  from “of a watcheth or pale blewe colour” (1578) to “of a watchet or greenish colour” (1635) (OED)


Arnold, J., 1988. Queen Elizabeth's Wardrobe Unlock'd. Leeds: Maney.
Holme, R., 1688. Academie of Armourie. s.l.:s.n.
Lowengard, S., 2006. The Creation of Color in Eighteenth-Century Europe. s.l.:Columbia University Press.
Markham, G., 1631 (1986). The English housewife.. Montreal: McGill-Queens U.P..
OED, 2017. Oxford English Dictionary Online, s.l.: s.n.
Phillips, E., 1658. The new world of English words: or A general dictionary. London: Brooks.
Robertson, S., 1883. The expense Book of James Master 1646-1676 [Part 1, 1646-1655], transcribed by Mrs Dallison.. Archaeologia Cantiana, pp. 152-216.
Slive, S., 1961. Henry Hexham's "Of colours": a note on a seventeenth century list of colours. Burlington Magazine, 103(702).
Strong, R., 1980. Charles I's clothes for the years 1633 to 1635.. Costume, Volume 14.
Whittle, J. & Griffiths, E., 2012. Consumption and gender in the early seventeenth century household: the world of Alice Le Strange.. Oxford: O.U.P.